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Struggling to Make Evolutionary Sense

first_imgEvolutionists love to quote Dobzhansky, who said, “Nothing in biology makes sense except in the light of evolution.”  But when they go about explaining biological observations, the sense and light seem hard to come by.Biodiversity:  The subject of the emergence of diverse forms of living things seems tailor made for a Darwinian explanation.  Why, then, 150 years after the Origin of Species, did Science Daily write a piece called, “The Puzzle of Biological Diversity”?  The opening paragraph seems to contradict long-held ideas: “Biologists have long thought that interactions between plants and pollinating insects hasten evolutionary changes and promote biological diversity,” it said.  “However, new findings show that some interactions between plants and pollinators are less likely to increase diversity than previously thought, and in some instances, reduce it.”    The findings come from studies of specialized moths that pollinate the Joshua tree.  Researchers found, contrary to expectations, “no evidence that local populations of moths adapt to local populations of Joshua trees.”  One of the researchers boasted that the findings fit his theory, but it’s hard to confirm a theory that can explain opposite outcomes: “But different interactions can have very different effects — some increase diversity, some don’t increase diversity at all, and some can even reduce diversity.”  If this represents a law of evolution, it resembles the Stuff Happens Law.Arms race:  The metaphor of an “evolutionary arms race” is popular among evolutionists.  According to this projection theme, one organism attacks another, causing it to evolve defenses, making the attacker evolve attacks, leading to more defensive evolution, and on and on.  Science Daily claims this theme has been verified in the case of a new model system, a mustard plant and a fly.  The article begins by claiming that this system “promises to answer many long-standing questions surrounding the evolutionary arms race between plant-eating insects and their host plants” – raising two questions immediately: (1) why haven’t long-standing questions about this been answered after 150 years of Darwinian theory, and (2) when will the promised answers arrive?    Noah Whiteman at the University of Arizona bypassed the usual model plant Arabidopsis thaliana for one that he could watch in real time as an insect attacked it.  Genetically tractable systems are “holy grails of any serious science that aim to unravel biological mechanisms down to the level of genes and proteins and signaling molecules.”  This statement suggests that few such systems exist for studying the evolutionary arms race phenomenon.  Whiteman did some good old fashioned field work, observing plants that were attacked by the flies, and then bringing them into his lab.  The observations seemed to indicate that the plants were responding by producing chemicals that mess up the flies’ digestive tract, but he admitted, “It’s very complicated, we don’t really know what’s going on at a molecular level.”    Controlled experiments with knockout genes seem to support ideas that genes respond to attacks and defenses.  The picture is quite complex, though: “As often in ground-breaking research, the initial discovery stirred up a myriad of questions,” including, but not limited to:“…How is the leaf miner responding to the presence or absence of these toxic molecules?  Does it care?  Clearly, it does.  There is a cost for detoxifying, but what is it?”    Ecological questions are waiting to be answered as well.    “We know that the leaf mining habit has evolved probably 25 times in insects,” Whiteman said, “mostly in beetles, butterflies, moths, some wasps and saw flies.  It’s not present in the other insect orders, but why?  How has selection shaped the ability of these insects to colonize an organism with a potent defense response?Clearly, for Whiteman to make sense of this in the light of evolution, he has a lot of work to do.  Incidentally, readers might ask how Arabidopsis thaliana became a model organism for study.  There’s no scientific procedure.  “There seems to be this idea that there is this big convention where people decide what becomes a model organism, when in fact it’s just individuals who decide what can be collected and what will work,” Whiteman remarked.  One wonders if generalizations from a model plant can really be applied to giant eucalyptus trees, the Venus flytrap, cacti and orchids.Protection racket:  Science Daily continued the arms-race theme with birds.  “Like gangsters running a protection racket, drongos in the Kalahari Desert act as lookouts for other birds in order to steal a cut of their food catch,” the article began.  “The behaviour … may represent a rare example of two species evolving from a parasitic to a mutualistic relationship.”  It’s hard to call this an example of evolution, though, because even if their interactions changed, their biology – their genotype and phenotype – remained the same.  And this was called a rare example of such evolution, if it is an example at all (“may represent”).Rewrite the textbooks again:  Some plants, such as cacti and grasses, use an alternative form of photosynthesis called C4.  Evolutionists thought they knew why.  But now, according to PhysOrg, “A new analysis of fossilized grass-pollen grains deposited on ancient European lake and sea bottoms 16-35 million years ago reveals that C4 grasses evolved earlier than previously thought.  This new evidence casts doubt on the widely-held belief that the rise [e.g., evolution] of this incredibly productive group of plants was driven by a large drop in atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations during the Oligocene epoch.”    In other words, if the earlier explanation made sense in the light of evolution, it no longer does.  “The idea that C4 grasses originated prior to global decreases in carbon dioxide levels requires us to reevaluate the way we think about the evolution of C4 photosynthesis,” Dr. David Nelson [U of Maryland] said.  “This new information should encourage the examination of alternate evolutionary selection pressures, such as warm temperatures or dry climates.”Size matters not:  Giving a notion a fancy name sometimes accomplishes little.  “Encephalization” is a term evolutionists invented to describe what they expected to find: increasing brain size relative to body size over time.  Suzanne Schultz and Robin Dunbar at University of Oxford decided to test if encephalization even happens.  Writing in PNAS,1 they noted that “allometric relationships between brain size and body size have been used as a proxy for evolutionary change, despite the validity of this approach being widely questioned.”  For the first time, they tried “quantitatively investigate temporal trends in brain size evolution across a divergent group of mammals” by studying 511 different living and fossil animal skeletons.    Contrary to expectations, they found no encephalization patterns: “Encephalization trends vary across mammalian taxa, with some showing strong evidence for macroevolutionary increase in brain size and others not,” they wrote.  ; “These findings challenge the conventional assumption that encephalization is a general trend across mammalian taxa.”  Whatever pattern they found seemed related to sociality, not fitness, but even that association was weak: “This suggests that the pressure for increased encephalization is associated with some aspect of bonded sociality,” they said, but “There are still unresolved questions regarding the cognitive demands of bonded sociality and what aspects of a taxon’s ecology that made bonded sociality evolutionarily so advantageous” – that is, assuming that the weak correlation is real and indicates a cause or effect.    But even if brain sizes did increase over time, it’s not established that evolution has made progress.  After all, Schultz and Dunbar noted, “A common analogy is drawn with computer technology; over time, size does not directly relate to functional efficacy, even though within comparable technologies it is more likely for a size/function relationship to hold (e.g., when comparing hard drive or RAM size, or dual vs. single Pentium processor speed).  Additionally, an evaluation of variability in total or relative brain size within taxa cannot address general patterns of variation in patterns of brain evolution across groups.”  In short, it’s not clear that any of the data make sense in the light of evolution.    PhysOrg’s writeup, however, completely ignored the problems they admitted, and made it look like evolution triumphed in explaining the data.  “Over millions of years dogs have developed bigger brains than cats because highly social species of mammals need more brain power than solitary animals, according to a study by Oxford University,” it said in bold print.  That is not what the original paper communicated.Snails is snails:  A new PhD is proud of his New Zealand snail collection.  PhysOrg gave Simon Hills, a Maori native, the limelight for extracting the “secrets of evolution” from fossil and genetic data of New Zealand snails.    But nowhere in the short article was there any information about evolution that people really care about: evidence of snails emerging from non-snails, or evolving into something else – after all, even the most hard-core creationists accept “changes over time” within kinds.  Moreover, Hills’ snails are all from a single genus.    Surprisingly, Hills “illustrated that the origins of the modern species are around 13 million years younger then [sic] the oldest known fossil specimens,” yet the snails were still snails after more than twice the time the human brain is claimed to have emerged from chimpanzee-level apes, or a tetrapod mammal is thought to have evolved into a blue whale.    How could a young PhD candidate confuse snail collecting with scientific explanation?  His answer revealed more emotion than philosophical rigor: “The trick with a PhD is to be excited about your topic,” he said.  “My academic record wasn’t that flash.  Then I took a paper on evolutionary biology and that was it.”Leaf multitasking:  Did you know that the veins in a leaf do much more than transport fluid?  In an article on Science Daily, a doctoral student at the University of Arizona compared them to the major organ systems in your body: “It’s like the skeleton because it holds the whole leaf up and lets it capture sunlight and not get blown over in a windstorm.  It’s like the circulatory system because it’s distributing water from the roots up to all the cells within the leaf, and it’s also bringing resources from the leaf back to the rest of the plant after photosynthesis has happened.  It’s also like a nervous system because there are chemical signals that are transmitted to the leaves from other parts of the plant through the liquid in the veins,” he said.    For a student in the department of evolutionary biology, Blonder had surprisingly little to say about evolution (i.e., nothing).  Instead, he was studying how leaves achieve the optimum tradeoffs in trying to fulfill these functions simultaneously in different environments.  Leaf veins, for instance, provide multiple paths to each cell, and can repair alternate pathways in case of damage.  “If the city was designed well, you can still take another road to get to where you want to be,” he said, apparently oblivious to the implications for his own work.Flying snakes:  The news media have been having fun with flying snakes without discussing their evolution (e.g., Science Daily)  Like Buzz Lightyear, some snakes can fall with style, and National Geographic has the video to show it.  Did evolution shed light on this phenomenon?  “This is amazingly interesting and curious, and it’s not at all clear how it works or how it could have evolved,” a physicist from Virginia Tech said.  “I’m just trying to answer these basic questions.”  The Dobzhansky flashlight must be out of order.When scientists can point to a law of nature that allows predictions, they can claim to stand on firm scientific ground.  Biologists envy the neat, mathematical laws of physics that permit no exceptions.  Laws in biology have been few and controversial.  Last week in Science,2 Roberta Millstein, a philosopher at UC Davis, reviewed a book that proudly announced a new, universal biological law of evolution: Biology’s First Law: The Tendency for Diversity and Complexity to Increase in Evolutionary Systems, by Daniel W. McShea and Robert N. Brandon (University of Chicago Press, 2010).  Millstein, fully conversant with the conceptual problems with scientific laws, aware of the debate over whether biological laws even exist, seemed amused by the bold claim of these two non-philosophical biologists to have found one.    And some law: McShea and Brandon concocted a “zero-force evolution law” (ZFEL) that seems indistinguishable from random stuff happening.  They explained it by an analogy (paraphrased by Millstein):Imagine a yard containing a number of trees, and imagine that the wind blows from each point of the compass with equal probability.  Come autumn, the result will be an increase in the dispersal of the leaves over time.  This, they suggest, is a zero-force state because there are no directional forces acting on the leaves.  Yet there is a change over time (unlike the phenomenon described by the law of inertia in physics)—the leaves that were originally clustered about the trees become more dispersed.  And if an evolutionary system is similarly in a zero-force state, it too will experience an increase in divergence over time.Do McShea and Brandon really believe that this kind of notion is going to explain the origin of bird flight and dolphin sonar and cellular motors? (see CMI article on ATP synthase to see what evolution is up against).    Millstein seemed almost patronizing in her attempt not to call this silly.  She took apart their terms and concepts and showed that the authors confused forces, causes, and empiricism.  “What happens, then, if (in spite of its name) the ZFEL isn’t really a zero-force law at all?  The authors’ generalization loses some of its rhetorical punch, perhaps, but punch isn’t everything,” she ended, with a grin discernible in the subtext.  If the ZFEL holds in many cases, then it’s just like seeing a forest in the trees.  If it holds for few cases, then “in each case we will have to consider whether we need to invoke special explanations for observed increases in diversity over time.”  But if one has to invoke special explanations in each case, all hopes for having discovered a scientific law are gone.    There might be a baby somewhere in all this bath water (or, to maintain the Dobzhansky metaphor, some sense in the light of evolution): “A generalization does not have be a zero-force law, or a law at all, in order to be important, useful, and informative.”  After all, sometimes “Stuff happens” is a useful answer to a question.1.  Suzanne Schultz and Robin Dunbar, “Encephalization is not a universal macroevolutionary phenomenon in mammals but is associated with sociality,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, published online before print November 22, 2010, doi: 10.1073/pnas.1005246107.2.  Robert L. Millstein, “Evolution: A Law by Any Other Name Would Smell as Sweet,” Science, 19 November 2010: Vol. 330 no. 6007 pp. 1048-1049, DOI: 10.1126/science.1197366.For you Darwin-loving anti-creationist skeptics dropping by, will you not study this entry?  Where is the evidence that “nothing in biology makes sense except in the light of evolution”?  Where is the light?  Where is the sense?  These 8 entries are typical of the standard fare that passes through the science news on a daily basis.  Are you proud of this stuff?  Is this what you call science?  Is this what you call Enlightenment?    For the rest of us who have not left off common sense, this is the theory that its promoters say is so well established, so obvious, so enlightening, that to believe anything else makes one insane or wicked.  It is the theory that must be forced on all our students.  No student shall be allowed to read a warning label, or hear a short statement at the beginning of the semester for 30 seconds that perhaps there are some problems with Charlie’s big tale and there are alternatives one can read about if desired.  Try that and the wrath of the Darwin Establishment brings down fire and brimstone on you.  Incredible.    If so many powerful people didn’t believe this stuff, it would be called a cult.  Now it has become a culture.  And like a diseased culture in a body, some strong antibiotics are needed to restore science to health.(Visited 22 times, 1 visits today)FacebookTwitterPinterestSave分享0last_img read more

BJP leadership tells Tiwari, Goel to bury hatchet

first_imgNew Delhi, May 22 (PTI) The BJP national leadership today intervened and instructed its Delhi unit chief Manoj Tiwari and Union minister Vijay Goel to sink their “differences” in view of the damage it was causing to the partys image.The reported “tussle” involving Tiwari and Goel also dominated the Delhi BJPs executive meeting on its first day.A top source said that Goel today met BJPs national general secretary (organisation) after which he had a meeting with Tiwari where the two leaders resolved their “differences”.”BJP is not a one-man army. Its a cadre-based party where individualism is not tolerated and discipline is supreme,” said BJP national vice president and Delhi in-charge Shyam Jaju who attended the executive meeting.Both Tiwari and Goel were also present at the meeting where they said that they had resolved their differences, party sources said.The tussle between the two leaders gathered momentum in the backdrop of BJPs stunning victory in last months MCD polls igniting the partys hope of recapturing power with a similar victory in the next Assembly election in Delhi due in 2020.The latest round of “conflict” between the two involved a felicitation function recently hosted by Goel where around 50 newly-elected councillors took part despite “express orders” from Tiwari himself, sources said.Following this, the Delhi unit put on hold consideration of three councillors for the posts of Leaders of House in three municipal corporations, as they were present in Goels function on May 16.Goel who holds the portfolio of Youth Affairs and Sports has launched Adopt a Slum campaign wherein each BJP councillor will adopt a slum in his or her ward and develop it with civic amenities.advertisementTiwari, MP from North East Delhi, is running a similar programme in his constituency and has announced to adopt and develop a slum every six months on the pattern of the Centres Adarsh Gram Yojna.Owing to Tiwaris Purvanchal background, the Delhi BJP was instrumental in garnering votes of people from eastern UP and Bihar settled in Delhi who have emerged as the decisive vote bank in the city. PTI VIT KUNlast_img read more

2014 Trans Tasman Series

first_imgThe countdown is on until the 2014 Trans Tasman Series, which will be contested between Australia and New Zealand in Mudgee, New South Wales this weekend. The Australian and New Zealand Men’s, Women’s and Mixed teams will take to the field at the Glen Willow Regional Sporting Complex across three games from Friday, 25 April until Sunday, 27 April 2014. Australia will be out to reclaim the Trans Tasman trophy in Mudgee, and with the 2015 World Cup edging closer, the Trans Tasman event will be the arch rivals’ last chance to battle it out before the World Cup is held in Coffs Harbour in April/May, 2015. Last time they met (Auckland, February 2013), New Zealand claimed the series two divisions to one, with Australia winning the Women’s Open division 3-0, while the Kiwis were victors in the Men’s and Mixed divisions two games to one. The game times for the three test series are listed below. We look forward to seeing you there to cheer on our Aussie teams!Game TimesGame One – Friday, 25 April 3.30pm – Mixed Open4.45pm – Women’s Open 6.00pm – Men’s Open Game Two – Saturday, 26 April1.00pm – Mixed Open2.15pm – Women’s Open3.30pm – Men’s OpenGame Three – Sunday, 27 April12.00pm – Mixed Open 1.15pm – Women’s Open2.30pm – Men’s Open See what Mudgee has to offerWhile you’re in Mudgee for the Trans Tasman Test Series, make sure you experience the many other activities on offer in the area. Sample fresh produce at the local markets, visit one of many cellar doors in the region or explore one of the nearby national parks. Find out more here:http://www.visitnsw.com/destinations/country-nsw/mudgee-area?utm_source=eventreferral&utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=transtasman Keep up-to-date with all of the latest news and information from the 2014 Trans Tasman Series:Website – www.touchfootball.com.auFacebook – www.facebook.com/touchfootballaustraliaTwitter – www.twitter.com/touchfootyaus (#transtasman2014)Instagram – www.instagram.com/touchfootballaustraliaYouTube – www.youtube.com/touchfootballaus Messages of Support We’ll be posting your messages of support for our Australian teams on our website in the lead up to the series, so be sure to send in your support for your favourite player, team or the entire contingent. We’d love to provide as much support as possible so be sure to get on board. You can do this through any of our social media sites or send an email to [email protected] with your message. Related Links2014 Trans Tasmanlast_img read more

8 days agoDonnarumma? Romagnoli? AC Milan must sell in January

first_imgTagsTransfersAbout the authorCarlos VolcanoShare the loveHave your say Donnarumma? Romagnoli? AC Milan must sell in Januaryby Carlos Volcano8 days agoSend to a friendShare the loveAC Milan face the prospect of having to make a big sale in January.Gazzetta dello Sport says the Rossonero need to raise cash to balance their budget.The two players primed to leave are Suso or Gigio Donnarumma, though interest is for the moment thin on the ground.Instead, Lucas Paqueta – wanted by PSG – and skipper Alessio Romagnoli are more likely to be cashed in.Interestingly, new contract talks between Donnarumma and Milan have stalled this month. last_img read more

7 days agoRatcliffe: How I can sign Barcelona star Messi for Nice

first_imgTagsTransfersAbout the authorCarlos VolcanoShare the loveHave your say Ratcliffe: How I can sign Barcelona star Messi for Niceby Carlos Volcano7 days agoSend to a friendShare the loveEnglish billionaire Jim Ratcliffe says he wants to sign Lionel Messi for Nice.With tongue in cheek, Ratcliffe says it would be a dream come true to sign the Barcelona star – no matter his age.He told L’Equipe: “The player I would like to see in Nice? For me, the best player in the world is Lionel Messi. “If I can buy him? Maybe when he turns 45, but he will continue to score! “Bobby Charlton retired at age 47. Oh no, it was Stanley Matthews … He always said that his biggest regret was to have stopped too early!” last_img read more

North Carolina Basketball: Photos: This Charlotte-Based Cake Designer Makes Amazing UNC Basketball Cakes

first_imggrooms Cake of North Carolina's basketball court.IG/forgoodnesscakescharlotteSkilled pastry chefs and cake designers can make some amazing things out of their desserts, and Charlotte-based For Goodness Cakes definitely knows its audience. The business’ Instagram account has posted a number of amazing-looking cakes, including a number that are North Carolina Tar Heel themed. The always popular #heelshouse cake. #atleastinmyhouse #goheels #groomscakes #charlottecakes Inside: delectable peanut butter cake with milk chocolate ganache filling.A photo posted by For Goodness Cakes (@forgoodnesscakescharlotte) on Jun 5, 2015 at 9:21pm PDT  Here strictly for work. #heelshouse #deandome #carolinacakes #lovethisplaceA photo posted by For Goodness Cakes (@forgoodnesscakescharlotte) on Jan 24, 2015 at 11:33am PST  Not a wedding cake, but could be. Photo credit: @dreaphotoartist #carolinacake #tarheelwedding #nycskyline #uncchapelhill #goheelsA photo posted by For Goodness Cakes (@forgoodnesscakescharlotte) on Jan 24, 2015 at 7:54pm PST Don’t worry Duke fans, they’ll make you, and fans of other schools, cakes as well. Like I’ve always said, I’m an equal opportunity provider. Design piped by hand and by eye with buttercream! #dookcakeA photo posted by For Goodness Cakes (@forgoodnesscakescharlotte) on May 8, 2015 at 2:08pm PDT  Collage cake for a very lucky birthday girl. Sadly had to crop off the beloved sea turtle topper, but this one deserved a 360! #bruciesbirthdaybash #milestonebirthdaycake #collagecake #handpaintedandcreatedA video posted by For Goodness Cakes (@forgoodnesscakescharlotte) on Apr 11, 2015 at 7:09pm PDT  Who knew owning a cake business would be Sports Teams 101? #whodey #footballcake #charlottegroomscakesA photo posted by For Goodness Cakes (@forgoodnesscakescharlotte) on Jun 20, 2014 at 1:48pm PDT  “Chef’s choice” cakes start at $75: you choose 2 colors, flavors and theme and I come up with design, no fondant, all buttercream. #ugacake #graduationcakeA photo posted by For Goodness Cakes (@forgoodnesscakescharlotte) on May 23, 2014 at 5:26pm PDT If we were Tar Heel fans, we know where we’d go for our Dean Dome confectionery recreations.last_img read more

Portugal stick with Fernando Santos as head coach

first_imgThe Portuguese Football Federation (FPF) have decided to retain Fernando Santos as the head coach of the national team, despite their early World Cup exitFollowing their triumphant campaign in the European championship two years ago, Portugal arrived at Russia with a new crop of young promising players beginning to emerge with their captain and all-time record goalscorer Cristiano Ronaldo still at the peak form.But the Navigators fell below expectations and, after finishing as Group B runners-up, they were handed an early exit after losing to Uruguay in the last-16.But, despite the disappointing World Cup campaign, FPF President Fernando Gomes has decided to retain Santos and they will now be turning their focus on to defending their European title in two years time.Cristiano Ronaldo, PortugalAli Daei wouldn’t be upset if Ronaldo breaks his scoring record Andrew Smyth – September 13, 2019 Iranian legend Ali Daei wouldn’t be upset to lose his record as international football’s all-time record scorer to the “great” Cristiano Ronaldo.“Everything has to go according to the plan. We decided to extend the contract of Fernando Santos till 2020 after our victory at Euro 2016. It was a well-considered decision,” said Gomes, according to FourFourTwo.“We understood all the perspectives and analyzed the problems, when we were making this decision. We took into account the fact that the World Cup would take place in 2018.”Since his appointment in 2014, Santos has since guided Portugal to their European triumph in 2016 and a third-place finish at the 2017 Confederations Cup.Portugal will now begin with their preparations for the UEFA Nations League, which begins in September.last_img read more

Pastore Serie A so tough

first_imgJavier Pastore says that Serie A “is certainly harder than Ligue 1” after Roma clawed back from 3-1 to a draw 3-3 with Atalanta.Pastore opened the scoring with a stunning back-heel finish just after 90 seconds in the first half, but Roma had to come back from 3-1 to draw 3-3 in a thrilling game.After the game, Pastore testified to the difficulty of the Italian Serie A, according to Football Italia.“It was a good goal, Cengiz Under gave me a smart cross and the finish went well. Fortunately, we were able to equalise eventually,” Pastore told Sky Sports Italia.Rick Karsdorp, Roma, Serie AKarsdorp reveals he had too much stress at Roma Manuel R. Medina – September 14, 2019 The Dutch defender has been with the Gialorrossi since 2017, but he has not enjoyed his time in the Italian Lega Serie A.“I think after our goal, we got a bit too relaxed and allowed them to have the ball, but that is something we shouldn’t do. We came out for the second half with more intensity and managed to get it back on track. We could even have won it at the end.“My position is up to the Coach, I came here happy to play wide midfield, but well aware that I had often played in a trident attack before.“It’s certainly harder in Serie A than Ligue 1, the first two games have been such a struggle!”last_img read more

Gracia not focused on qualifying for Europe

first_imgAhead of Chelsea’s visit at Vicarage Road on Wednesday, Watford manager Javi Gracia says qualifying for European football is not in his radar.Watford are currently seventh in the Premier League table after their 2-0 win at West Ham on Saturday, but manager Gracia has dismissed any talks of qualifying for European football next season.“I prefer to work day by day, to enjoy the road, every moment, not only one result, not just at the end of the season, I like to compete with all the teams,” Gracia told Sky Sports.Premier LeaguePremier League Betting: Match-day 5 Stuart Heath – September 14, 2019 Going into the Premier League’s match-day five with a gap already beginning to form at the top of the league. We will take a…“Like against West Ham [Watford won 2-0], they have a very good coach, very good players, we are in a good moment and we can compete with all of them.“Against Chelsea will be the same, I prefer to think that way than to focus only on the position of the table because we are in December and football changes day by day.”last_img read more